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Wayne CDU800 Submersible Cast Iron and Steel Sump Pump
Wayne’s sump pumps often appear similar to the layman, and this makes some users consider them to be similar in configuration. However, they are never quite identical in terms of the features and performance offered. This is not to say that the products of Wayne are anything but value for money, but rather that they offer value in different ways.
We saw that the Wayne 58321-WYN3 Submersible Sump Pump combined excellent motor horsepower with a great all-round design. The Wayne CDU800 offers an equally wide range of features, but is placed in a lower horsepower bracket and boasts of a cast iron construction. This, along with the price difference, makes it foolish to consider the similar looking pumps as similar in specifications. Indeed, we need to study the CDU800 carefully so as to gauge its quality and efficiency as per the benchmarks of its price range.
- Product Dimensions: 9 x 9 x 12 inches
- Product Weight: 18.5 pounds
- Type: Submersible Sump Pump
- Discharge: 1 ½ inches NPT
- Motor: 1/2 HP, 100 volts
- Power: 3900 GPH at 5′ head
- Warranty: 3- year
- Compact and efficient design by Wayne
- Body made of cast iron for superior longevity
- Molded cast iron discharge for superior water removal
- Submersible power cord of sufficient length for easy installation
- Excellent 1/2HP motor with stunning 3900GPH at 5’ head
- Good maximum head ensures wide adaptability of the product
- Highly responsive bipolar switch
- Good warranty on all parts
- Handle small for people with large hands, cannot be bent
- Switch guard could have been made of cast iron
Build Quality and Design
As we mentioned above, Wayne pumps generally have a standard design comprising of a rather thick motor housing, a well molded discharge and the switch assembly. Together, these ensure that the product is compact and does not possess any protruding parts that may hinder the flow of water or get damaged by solid particles in the sump.
The Wayne CDU800 1/2 HP Cast Iron Submersible Sump Pump follows this tried and tested design, except that unlike many similarly priced sump pumps (of both Wayne and other companies), it makes use of cast iron instead of steel. As is well known, cast iron is regarded as more sturdy and capable of handling extreme water pressure during storms, etc. Furthermore, there is a layer of corrosion resistant coating, which ensures that the housing does not rust.
If that weren’t enough, the base of the pump is made of cast iron as well, thus avoiding the longevity problems associated with materials like plastic.
Major External Parts (Discharge, Power Cord and Handle)
The discharge of the Wayne CDU800 is made of high quality cast iron, which insures this vital part against damage due to impact from heavy pebbles ,etc. Further, it is so designed that it efficiently assists the motor in removing the maximum amount of water without getting clogged with debris.
Finally, the fact that the discharge has a 1-1/2” NPT diameter ensures that most standard pipes of this diameter can function with this sump pump, thereby saving one the trouble of using valves, etc to reduce the pipe diameter.
The power cord is fully insulated and fully submersible, thereby allowing the user to install the sump pump without having to worry about electrical shocks, etc. Furthermore, the power cord is of decent length, which precludes the necessity of there being multiple modifications to the electrical wiring of the house before the pump can be used efficiently.
Finally, Wayne has provided a stainless steel handle for the pump, which is fixed and cannot be bent as per convenience. This, and the fact that it is rather small for a person with large hands, makes the handle one of the rare shortcomings of this sump pump.
Motor and Sealing
The heart of any sump pump is its motor, and thankfully, the Wayne CDU800 comes with a powerful 1/2HP motor that is capable of working for long hours without suffering any decline in productivity. In fact, it can achieve a consistent output of 3900 gallons per hour at 5’ head. Further, it has a decent maximum head of 20’, and unlike a lot of sump pumps which achieve only weak outputs at their highest certified heads, this product pumps a decent 600 gallons per hour at its maximum head.
Complementing this excellent motor is the sealing. Wayne has used a superior ceramic seal which allows neither water to flow into the motor nor oil to flow out of it. Coupled with the superior quality well-oiled ball bearings, these make this device one of the best sump pumps in terms of motor and sealing quality.
Impeller and Switch Assembly
Wayne knows the importance of using an impeller that can run efficiently even when it is assaulted by pebbles and other solid particles that are swirling around with the water in the sump. Cast iron has proved to be the best solution in this situation, and hence, we find that the Wayne CDU800 has been provided with a high quality cast iron impeller. Even better, the impeller’s design allows it to move water at a rapid pace such that the discharge can efficiently transfer it into the outlet pipes even during the height of the rainy season, when flooding is a real possibility.
The switch assembly is composed of a thick but highly reliable PVC float connected via a steel arm to the switch. When the water rises, the float is pushed upwards, applying pressure on the arm and thereby triggering the switch. The switch itself is a bipolar one with a provision for auto-shutdown should there be great fluctuation of power supply and/or extreme heating of the motor. This ensures that the switch doubles up as a safety mechanism that ensures the security of both the sump pump and the wiring of the house.
Finally, the CDU800 is protected by a stainless steel switch guard which extends to a distance just sufficient for protecting the large float. Some users complained that the steel could on occasion be dented if the pump collided with the sides of the sump, but they added that despite this denting, the guard continued to serve its function of protecting the switch well.
The CDU800 Submersible Sump Pump was universally praised for being small enough to fit in almost any sump, and being sturdy enough to survive even the peak rainy season water pressure. Further, users noted the ability of the motor to remove water even when the outlet gradient was steep and high.
Finally, users were impressed by the ability of the switch to turn on and off at short intervals based on fractional changes in the water level. On the flip side, a minority of users complained of the handle being hard to grip, and in a few rare cases, the switch guard being dented due to a hard impact during installation
The Wayne CDU800 brings the best of Wayne’s expertise in building quality products that are both powerful and compact. Though this perhaps led them to sacrifice a larger handle for a smaller one, the ability of this sump pump to pump impressive levels of water even at an exceptional maximum head, the exceptional performance of the impeller and the efficiency of the discharge prove that Wayne left no stone unturned to ensure quality in the core parts of this pump.
Indeed, if we consider these features alongside the 3 year warranty that is offered by Wayne, we realize that this product is a strong competitor for the position of the most reliable sump pump in the sub-$200 price bracket.
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Simple Steps to Clean a Sump Pump
As our tips and guides page suggests, the most common reasons for malfunction involved sumps and sump pumps which had not been cleaned for a long time. This is especially true for situations where there is a high amount of loose gravel and stones in the substratum of the basement, and these collect in the sump along with the water. Furthermore, as more and more gravel and debris collect in the sump, the depth of the sump is reduced, leading to the water rising faster. This leads to the sump pump being overworked. To avoid these issues, we have come up with a short list of simple steps to clean a sump pump.
Cleaning the sump
While we would like to concentrate on the sump pump, it should not be forgotten that the maximum debris collects at the bottom of the sump and not on or in the sump pump itself (except parts of the impeller). Hence, before one starts on the simple steps to clean a sump pump, it is vital to clean out the sump itself.
- Remove the sump cover and disconnect the power of the sump pump.
- Disconnect the PVC pipe from the discharge and carefully pull out the sump pump from the sump. Expect some amount of water to come out with the pump.
- Place the sump pump in a bucket or plastic box and keep it aside.
- Use a wet vacuum (not a dry or leaf vacuum) to drain any water that may be present in the sump. Note that while doing so, some small pieces of debris would also be pulled into the vacuum, so a sturdy wet vacuum is advisable.
- Once the wet vacuum has removed the water, shine a torch into the sump pump. You will see a number of small to medium-sized pieces of debris at the bottom.
- Put on a pair of sturdy workman’s gloves and use a scraper or small shovel to pull out the debris and put it in a disposable plastic bag or bin. Note that there may be small insects and plants in the sump as well, and one should not bring one’s face too close to the sump surface for this reason.
- There may be liquid or semi-liquid sludge at the bottom, this needs to be cleaned out using a plastic cup. Wear a face-mask to avoid the powerful and unpleasant odors that may arise.
- Let the sump walls dry out for some time. Once they are dry, scrape the sides of the sump with sandpaper or any abrasive material that can remove the debris and possible algal blooms.
- Spray mild disinfectant into the sump as an added precursor to simple steps to cleaning a sump pump.
Since you would need a dry sump to carry out the above steps, it is advisable to carry out the above steps during the dry season.
Cleaning the sump pump body
- Take the sump pump out of the bucket/box and let the sump pump dry in the sun for some time. This will reduce the odors and dry out the sludge sticking to the sides and the impeller.
- Take a piece of sandpaper and scrub the sides of the sump pump thoroughly. While the best sump pumps have smooth exteriors that can be cleaned easily, some of the older ones will have nooks and crannies that require the use of special scrapers to clean out.
- Take a little mineral oil (like car engine lubricators) and apply it to the outer surface of the sump pump, such that a nice layer is created. This will create an added layer of protection against corrosion.
Cleaning the discharge and impeller
The last series of simple steps to clean a sump pump involve cleaning the lower parts of the sump pump viz. the discharge and impeller.
- Using the same procedure outlined above, use a sandpaper to clean out the interior and exterior surfaces of the discharge tube.
- While learning how to install a sump pump, you may have come across a small air hole located near the discharge. Clean out this air hole with a pin, such that you can see the other side of the surface through this small hole.
- Apply some vegetable oil – not mineral oil, since the discharge is made of plastic and not metal – on the exterior and interior surfaces to ensure smooth functioning.
- Locate the impeller and ensure that the debris in and around it has dried to a sufficient extent.
- Using a leaf vacuum with blower function set at a low air speed, carefully blow away the loose dry debris, till only the threads and other tenacious debris are left.
- Take a small putty knife and scrape away at the vents carefully till you can see through most of the vents. This will also dislodge some threads/hairs.
- Finally, pull out as many of the threads as you can, using a tweezer or similar tool if necessary.
- Blow some canned air into the impeller blades to remove residual debris.
- Once you’ve covered the major part of the simple steps to clean a sump pump, you need to replace the sump pump in the now clean sump.
- Once the sump pump has been lowered to the floor of the sump, reattach the PVC pipe to the discharge and reconnect the sump pump to the electric supply.
- Pour a bucket of water into the sump and observe whether the functioning of the pump has improved. If the cleaning has been properly carried out, the water will be removed at a faster pace.
- Replace the sump cover.
The simple steps to clean a sump pump are not exactly the most time-saving, since the cleaning process involves multiple steps. However, these steps are similar regardless of which product you choose using our types of sump pump – which is best choice guide. Furthermore, they need to be carried out at gaps of not less than 6-8 months, with the thorough sump pump impeller cleaning being required only about once a year. Thus, while the process may seem long and somewhat complex, the low frequency of the clean-ups ensure that keeping the sump pump in top shape is not a difficult task.
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Tips for avoiding water damage with basement waterproofing paint
Although the choices of materials for waterproofing one’s basement are numerous, it doesn’t take a scientist to tell you that waterproofing paint is one of the easiest to handle, and when used carefully, cheapest of materials available. However, waterproofing paints come in many forms, ranging from oil or latex based paints to elastomers. Their viscosity, primer requirements, thinning needs and wall preparation procedures are vastly different and it is fallacious to believe that just by knowing the basic painting procedure one can achieve the perfect sealing, even when the overall water-retention capacity of the basement is kept to a minimum by a sump pump that has been installed properly. On the other hand, the products can be handled and used without much hassle if the tips for avoiding water damage with basement waterproofing paint can be followed.
Tips for Oil and Latex based paints
Dry out the surface thoroughly
Though this is one of the basic truths known to any painter, many people assume that since the paint is waterproofing by nature, it will be able to settle down on wet walls or those with mold/fungi on them. The truth is that waterproofing paint is capable of repelling water only when it is dry, and to dry out, it needs a dry surface with which to chemically bond.
If the surface is wet, a film of water exists between the surface and the paint and this causes the paint to remain wet because it cannot bond with the surface. As water builds up under the paint over time, the paint and primer are turned to a mushy mixture that is of no use whatsoever.
To dry out the surface and prepare it for the paint:
- Take a loose wire brush and brush away loose paint, mortar and flakes of old mold and while doing so, ensure that the surface is as flat as possible.
- Use a dehydrating agent to remove the water from the wall. Note that this part of the tips for avoiding water damage with basement waterproofing paint would be useful only for a couple of hours after the drying has been carried out as water is constantly moving through concrete.
- Use dehumidifiers to dry out the air present in the basement and one of the best sump pumps to ensure that the substratum of the basement is dry (so water cannot rise up from the floor) .
- Apply the primer and paint.
Cover any cracks
Cracks less than 1/8th of an inch in thickness can be covered using polyurethane filler foam. As with applying paint, ensure that the surface around the crack is dry. If needed, wear a gas mask to avoid contact with any fumes that may be associated with the foam. Once the foam has settled well, apply another layer if the contours of the crack are still visible. Once you’re satisfied, wait for about an hour before beginning to paint.
Oil is better than Latex
As mentioned in the introduction, there are two major types of waterproofing paint – oil and latex. While latex gives a smooth finish, it has a tendency to become stretched when heavy objects are hung on the walls. Further, it is not very easy to clean and if you use the basement to for working with table saws or plasma cutters, it can become grimy quite easily. Oil takes on grime too but it is easier to clean and when heavy objects are suspended, there is no flaking or stretching of the paint. Further, oil based paints are cheaper and the thinners/primers required are more akin to those used for ordinary wall paint.
Tips for Elastomeric Paints
Viscosity and Thinning
Elastomeric paints work somewhat better than oil or latex based paints and can be thinned with water, but are also somewhat costlier. If you choose elastomeric paints, you should keep in mind that the viscosity of elastomeric paints is far higher than ordinary paints. Further, they are meant to be applied in this viscous form rather than thinned to a fluid form.
In addition, one should note that oftentimes the change in viscosity is not readily apparent (or no change takes place) when thinner is added, but the requisite changes are taking place in the internal composition of the mixture. Hence, if no change is apparent, one should not keep on adding water.
Dry Form Thickness (DFT)
Dry form thickness is the thickness of the coat of paint on a dry surface when the coat itself has become completely dry. This thickness in case of elastomeric paints is in the order of 10-20 mils per coat, with most walls generally requiring two coats. Compare this with the 3-5 mils of a coat of oil based paint and it becomes obvious that elastomeric paints are far thicker. Indeed, they should form a rubbery layer through which the minute details of the wall beneath should not be visible. If the forms are still visible, it is likely that the coat is not thick enough and another coating can be undertaken.
Don’t Avoid Backbrushing and Edges
One of the tips for avoiding water damage with basement waterproofing paint that is often overlooked is the need for backbrushing of viscous paint to ensure uniform application. Without backbrushing, lumps of solids can remain and this creates an uneven surface that may protect against water invasion but will collect dirt more easily and cause maintenance headaches later on.
When painting, furthermore, one of the common suggestions of our tips and blog articles for sump pumps’ sump pits becomes valid – ensure that the edges are not ignored. Ignoring them will provide water narrow spaces through which to pour in and render the waterproofing largely inept.
While providing the above tips for avoiding water damage with basement waterproofing paint, we’ve purposefully avoided creating an article that would be similar to the buying guides for sump pumps. The reason for this is that unlike sump pumps, the best paint has to be chosen by the person on the spot, as these vary in price from region to region and are often shipped from the nearest factories. That said, the rules for applying such paints are more or less uniform, and if the ones we’ve listed above are followed, it is likely that one’s basement would be free from mold, dampness and of course, water leakage for posterity, provided of course that reinforcing coats are applied at regular intervals.
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How to avoid clogging and ensure proper drainage for your sump pump
Considering the fact that sump pumps are the easiest to replace and/or repair, many users focus solely on the pump itself. While it cannot be denied that the sump pump has a substantial role to play, its efficiency depends directly on the ability of the sump to collect water and the pipes to remove it once the pump has pushed it upwards. In other words, the pump’s efficacy is a direct function of the efficiency with which water is drained into and out of the sump. Below we offer some tips for proper sump pump drainage that should enable you to maximize the pumping potential and hence the benefits of the sump pump regardless of the downpour occurring outside.
Sump Position and Diameter
Basement floors might contain holes for a number of reasons but many believe that the holes are present solely to act as a sump hole. Real sump holes, however, have a few distinguishing characteristics:
- Located at the lowest part of the basement
- Located in a corner, usually near one of the foundation pillars but not directly in contact with it.
- Is roughly cylindrical in shape.
- Does not have any materials located inside it.
If the hole you’ve found in your basement does not fit into the above criteria, it is most likely not a sump hole and should not be used as one. You should instead drill one keeping the above points in mind. This would ensure that the water entering the sub-stratum of the basement flows naturally in the direction of the sump and percolates into it.
Speaking of percolation, it is important to ensure that the water does not rise above a certain level under ordinary circumstances. This level should generally be such that at least 1/4th of the sump remains dry. While there is no hard and fast rule for deciding what diameter should be chosen to ensure this, many areas have plumbing rules that are geared to this requirement. Further, inquiring about sump pump metrics from neighbors might provide a good idea about the ideal size of the sump.
Positioning of Pipes
Most pumps require a number of pipes to remove the water from the basement. One of the tips for proper sump pump drainage is to ensure that the pipes rise to moderate heights but then turn at right angles. Ideally, the maximum height of the pipes should not be more than 3/4th of the maximum head supported by the unit. If this rule is followed, the pump would have some surplus capacity left for handling heavy water flow and thus the risk of motor burnout would be substantially reduced.
Pipe connectors, on the other hand, must always be of the L or T-type as these help ensure that the pipes “turn” at right angles. Such turns reduce chances of backflow and valve failure leading to motor failure due excess workload. Of course, just because the pipes turn at right angles, they don’t have to remain parallel to the basement floor/ceiling. In fact, a slight downward slope might be useful for discharging water when the amount is not very high.
Drainage Outside the House
As we mentioned while discussing basement waterproofing techniques, it is vital that excess water does not collect around the building’s foundations. To ensure that sump water does not flow back to the foundations and thus undo much of the hard work put into waterproofing, it is important to ensure that the water drains at a sufficient distance from the house.
For most houses having no gradient around them, drainage at a distance of 10-20 feet should be sufficient to prevent backflow. If the house sits in a depression though, the distance should be increased to 30 feet or a safe distance from the edge of the depression, whichever is greater. If you find that your property’s dimensions do not allow for drainage at such distance, you should construct a special drain that ensures that water disposed of by the drainage pipe does not flow back towards your foundations.
What should the water drain into?
While some folks are content to allow the water to flow along the ground once it has been removed from the vicinity of the house, many plumbers decry this practice as harmful to the overall water table of the region. Further, such water tends to flow into local depressions and create swampy conditions.
The good news is that there are a number of alternatives. Let us look at the pros and cons of each:
- Flood drains:These drains are meant to remove large quantities of water from ordinary drains. They would typically drain into reservoirs, lakes or rivers, thus removing the water from the locality entirely. If your local laws permit, draining into the flood drains is your best option.
- Septic Tanks:If your area does not suffer from excess rain, you might consider draining the sump water into the septic tank. Note however that if there are signs of moisture around the tank, it is likely that the tank is already handling a lot of water (from rain or from other sources) and overburdening it would definitely not count among the tips for proper sump pump drainage.
- Sewer System:Unlike flood drains, sewer systems are not meant to handle a large amount of sump water. As such, draining into them is not recommended unless you have express municipal permission.
- Neighborhood lots:Some localities and cooperative housing socieities designate a certain plot for disposing their sump water. Such disposal is carried out with the express approval of the plot owner and the cooperative’s management. If your locality has such a provision, you might inquire as to whether you can avail of this service as well.
If your locality does not have such a system, you might discuss without your neighbors whether one of them would be willing to collect and dispose of your sump water in return for some benefits or payment. You should not, under any circumstances whatsoever, drain water into a neighbor’s lot without his/her permission.
While the above procedures may appear somewhat complex, you should keep in mind that they are one-time adjustments that you shouldn’t need to revisit unless there is an incidence of damage to the pipes or change in local laws. Of course, to ensure maximum dividends from such adjustments, you would need to carry out frequent cleaning of the sump pump and associated maintenance procedures. Combined together correctly, good maintenance and diligent following of the tips for proper sump pump drainage should be enough to ensure that the basement and foundations remain dry and thus, do not end up demanding far costlier repairs in the long run.
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Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump Reviews
While reed and float switches have established themselves as highly sensitive and therefore reliable, diaphragm switches are a new phenomenon which is beginning to challenge the hegemony of the older reed and float switches. Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump draws on this new technology, and combines it with state of the art building materials and a plethora of attractive features to offer a product that appears well rounded on paper.
However, users of older brands like Zoeller or Wayne might well question the ability of a comparatively new brand like Little Giant, and a new technology like the diaphragm switch. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze this product in detail to decide whether it truly belongs to the ranks of the best sump pumps available in the market today.
- Product Dimensions: 10.3 x 10.5 x 9.4 inches
- Product Weight: 13 pounds
- Type: Submersible Sump Pump
- Decent 17’ maximum head
- Motor: 1/3 HP, 115V, 50/60Hz
- Power: 45 gallons per minute/ 2700 gallons per hour
- Warranty: 1 year
The Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump comes with a limited one year warranty, which is slightly lower than what some of the competitors offer.
- Small and compact architecture
- High quality epoxy coated cold rolled steel motor housing
- Motor housing has polycarbonate cover for easy servicing at home
- Cast iron impeller for durable and efficient functionality
- Motor housing is filled with oil for lifelong lubrication of the motor
- Decently powerful 1/3HP motor with 2700 gallons per hour capacity at 0’ head
- Decent 17’ maximum head for wide adaptability
- Durable and wide handle
- High precision diaphragm switch
- Power cord could have been longer
- Warranty is lower than that of some competitors
- Diaphragm switch difficult to test without actual sump conditions
Build Quality and Design
At first sight, the Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump appears to be significantly smaller than the average sump pump. The reason for its compactness is that the height required for the float switch to operate is eliminated courtesy of the much smaller diaphragm switch, which sits alongside the motor housing.
This also eliminates the risk of an air pocket developing between the float and discharge, and thereby allows the discharge to be flatter and smaller. Finally, the sump pump has been provided with a set of short legs that serve to raise the product slightly for unimpeded impeller movement.
Thankfully, this compact body is made of extremely high quality materials. The motor housing is made of cold rolled steel, which has been proved to be as effective as cast iron in defending the delicate internal components of the pump from the pressure of the water in the sump. Further, the housing comes with a layer of epoxy paint which guarantees immunity against corrosion.
The housing is connected to other vital parts using premium stainless steel screws, while the base is made of tough polypropylene. Together, they ensure that the sump pump retains its integrity and stability even under extreme water pressure and/or rapid movement of debris in the sump.
Major External Parts (Discharge, Power Cord and Handle)
As mentioned above, the Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump does not require a tall and bulky discharge, and therefore, we find Little Giant including a short 1-1/2” NPT discharge, which ensures that while most standard PVC pipes can connect without difficulty, the discharge is never responsible for adding bulk or weight to the pump structure.
The power cord is fully sealed, and therefore capable of being submerged without difficulty. Indeed, Little Giant has connected it directly to the switch assembly, which helps reduce the size of the sump pump further. However, a few users complained that the 10’ power cord was surprisingly not capable of reaching distant outlets since the short size of the product and the curved design at the intersection of cord and pump ensured that a substantial portion of the cord was wasted in the pump itself, leaving insufficient amount of cord for connection to power outlets at the other end of the basement.
As our best sump pump reviews have shown, though the handle isn’t the most vital of pump components, having a large handle can make lifting and lowering the pump a much easier task. Thankfully, the product offers a durable stainless steel handle that stretches across the top diameter of the motor housing, making it ideal for being used as a means of raising and lowering the pump.
Motor and Sealing
The Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump comes with a 1/3HP motor which is the standard for this price range. More vitally, it is capable of pumping out 45 gallons per minute, or 2700 gallons per hour, which is marvelous considering the size of this sump pump. The secret behind this excellent output may lie in the fact that the motor housing is oil filled and therefore, ensures lifelong lubrication for the motor contained within.
Further sweetening the deal is the fact that the pump has a maximum head of 17’, which is decent in any price bracket. Lastly, unlike a number of other sump pumps, the motor is user serviceable (within limits of course), by means of a removable but sturdy polycarbonate top cover, attached to the motor housing by means of stainless steel joints.
Like all good sump pumps, the motor of the product is hermetically sealed using a hybrid seal with carbon and ceramic faces. This ensures that there is no possibility of leakage of the oil into the sump, or water into the pump.
Impeller and Switch
The product, like the Wayne ESP25 Battery Back Up Sump Pump, offers a specially designed cast iron impeller that carries out the dual functions of effectively channeling water and protecting itself and the base of the pump from large/sharp pieces of debris that may be floating around in the sump.
The switch, as we mentioned in the introduction, is a diaphragm switch. As water rises, it exerts pressure on the diaphragm. When the water exerts pressure above a certain point, the diaphragm activates the switch and through it, the motor.
Given its high precision sensors, the diaphragm switch on the Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump offers extremely accurate responses to changes in water level, while the durable plastic construction ensures that even under very high pressure, the diaphragm does not break. However, some users complained that the diaphragm switch was difficult to test with the hand, unlike float switches, which can simply be raised to initiate a dry run.
A number of customers were skeptical about the new diaphragm switch system, but after using the product they became convinced that Little Giant has done a great job in providing a well designed, responsive and highly versatile product at an affordable price. The well oiled motor and the powerful impeller attracted especial praise, though many also mentioned the utility of the pump handle.
A few users complained of low warranty, though they admitted that they had no reason to avail this warranty or take the product to the service centre even after the warranty expired, since the product continued to offer sterling performance for years. Finally, few people associated with plumbing sales companies complained that the diaphragm switch could not be demonstrated to users, though actual users never had this issue since the switch worked fine in the sump.
The Little Giant 6-CIA 1/3 Horsepower Submersible Sump Pump may be using comparatively newer technology, but the attention Little Giant has given to the product ensures that it comes off as one of the best products in any price range. Combining the high quality materials that are the hallmark of its competitors with an innovative technology and still managing to maintain a compact form factor is no mean achievement.
Indeed, this more than compensates for the few shortcomings (such as warranty and power cord length) that have been reported. All in all, this product is a great choice for anyone who is seeking a small but powerful and highly efficient sump pump in the $100-150 price bracket.
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Sump Pumps Comparison Table
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How To Avoid a Frozen Sump Pump in Winter
Folks living in the colder climes often find that carrying out the sump pump testing procedure produces some movement in the sump water but no discharge from the pipe. While it is possible that there may be debris inside the pump that is causing the blockage or the sump pump itself has frozen, most such cases occur because the water in the discharge pipe has frozen and thus blocked the exit. While minor blockages can be mildly annoying, complete blockages are dangerous.
Firstly, such blockages force the pump to run continuously without removing any water and can thus cause pump burnout. Further, as water collects in the sump, the pump may overflow and flood the basement. To ensure your basement and pump don’t fall prey to frozen pipes and the pump itself doesn’t freeze, we’ve provided a short guide for learning how to avoid a frozen sump pump.
- Make Use of the Gradient
Freezing occurs mostly in the section of the pipe that sits outside the house and is thus exposed to the elements. While such exposure is inevitable, its effects on the water inside the discharge pipe are magnified if the water is not allowed to exit the pipe easily. This happens when the pipe’s angle does not match that of the slope of the ground.
If you are learning how to use a sump pump, you can simply attach the pipe in a manner that obeys the gradient of the ground around your house. If you have already installed the pipe, you may need to disconnect the pipe and then choose one that is capable of following the slope correctly.
- Use a wide/large pipe
When you disconnect the old pipe, you may consider using a large/wide pipe ie one with greater internal diameter, as the replacement. Ideally, this enhanced diameter should be much higher than that needed to remove even the highest amount of water during the monsoon. If you’re wondering how a large pipe is linked to learning how to avoid a frozen pipe, let us add that a large pipe is never likely to be full of water.
As such, even if the water is not drained out at any point of time and freezes due to the cold weather, it would not create a complete blockage. Further, because water tends to flow out of any possible opening, the very fact that the pipe never completely fills up with water at any point acts as a means of ensuring that any water that is left over flows out of the pipe over time instead of freezing inside the pipe itself.
- Keep Workload Low
While it may not be possible to reduce the sump pump’s workload in emergency situations, it is possible to take precautions beforehand that ensure that in cases of freezing inside the discharge pipe, the pump does not have to work itself to exhaustion. This is all the more important because when the pipe is partially blocked, pumping out the same amount of water requires greater effort and this can put undue pressure on the pipe even when the water in the sump appears to be well within operating limits.
- Some of the means of reducing pump workload are:
Carry out regular sump pump maintenance to ensure collection of debris does not reduce the efficiency of the motor.
Consider using a backup sump pump in addition to the primary one.
Keep the maximum head (height to which water is raised) low so that the pump can remove water faster and with less effort.
- Heat the Sump Water
In case of freezing in the pipe or in the sump itself, it is advisable to use a heating rod to heat the sump water to a lukewarm temperature.
- To do so:
- Disconnect the sump pump power supply.
- Remove the sump cover and note whether the sump water’s surface has completely frozen over. In case it has, use an ice pick to break the ice.
- Ensure that the sump pump has proper electrical insulation and grounding. If either is absent, follow the alternative steps outlined after this set of steps.
- Lower the heating coil/rod into the water. Ensure that it doesn’t rest against either the sump boundary or any sump pump component. Ideally you should hold the coil in place.
- Connect the coil’s power supply and start it. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water in the sump.
- When the water temperature has risen by about 20-30 degrees Celsius, stop the coil and remove it
- Reconnect the sump pump power supply and wait for a while. The hot water would melt the ice in the sump and the pipe and this in turn would make water flow normal, at least for the time being. If your pump is not properly insulated, DO NOT lower the coil into the water.
- Instead: Heat water in a bucket using the coil.
- While the water heats, break any ice that may be lying on the top of the water in the sump.
- Once heating is complete, unplug and remove the coil.
- Pour the hot water from the bucket gently into the pump until about 1/4th of the sump remains above the water level.
- Start the sump pump and wait for the hot water to melt the ice.
- Once the sump pump has removed some of the water, pour out some more hot water. You may reheat the water still in the bucket if it has become cold.
- Important notes:
Avoid pouring water too fast. If too much hot water interacts with cold water, excess steam may be produced. While not harmful, such steam may reduce visibility and force you to stop the process.
There is no need to empty the bucket into the sump. Once you feel the pump is able to remove water at a normal pace, it is time to stop the process.
Sump pumps are not designed for working with extremely hot water. Heating water too much might ruin the internal components of the sump pump.
Do not touch the water with your hand while the coil is in the sump. In fact, you should wear rubber gloves while lowering the thermometer or use a non-conducting stick to check the temperature. If you don’t adhere to these requirements, you may get a nasty electrical shock!
- Freezing of Internal Sump Pump Components
Freezing of the sump pump itself is extremely rare since the oil inside the motor chamber is insulated from changes in outside temperature and freezing in the discharge or impeller can be removed using the above method. If you do suspect freezing of the core components of the pump or wish to learn how to avoid a frozen sump pump, you can:
Remove the pump from the sump after disconnecting the power supply.
Check for frozen water inside the impeller or discharge. Use an ice pick or similar instrument to remove such ice or frozen debris. If nothing is frozen, you can check for blockages that might freeze over during the winter.
Move the float gently to ensure that there is no jamming due to freezing. If it does not move easily, remove ice or debris from the shaft and/or the float itself till movement becomes normal.
Note whether the insulation of the motor compartment has been damaged anywhere. Such damage may have led or in the future may lead to the motor lubricant oil or coating oil freezing over.
Leave the sump pump in a warm area for some time. You can also leave it near a heat source that does not involve flames. Even if there is no actual freezing, this step would help melt any blockages within the pump that might freeze later .Replace the pump in the sump and check whether the pump is working normally.
Note: Never try to heat the pump or any of its components directly as this may lead to the motor exploding or the lubricating oil catching fire.
Freezing is not included among the most common sump pump issues and solutions because it affects only those in particular climatic situations and that too, not very often. However, if you do find your sump pump or any of its components frozen, it is advisable carry out the above procedures and so ensure that as and when the rains come, your pump is ready to handle them. On the other hand, if you believe the pump can freeze sometime in the future and would like to learn how to avoid a frozen sump pump, you should assess the possible threats to your pump and discharge pipe during the autumn or early winter so as to give yourself adequate time to carry out the necessary procedures.
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Zoeller 57-0001 M57 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump
When the company is Zoeller, buying a sump pump can be extremely hard, primarily because of the unbeatable quality and value for money that Zoeller ensures is characteristic of each and every one of its products. The Zoeller M57 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump is no exception to this, offering an excellent mix of features and quality build at an unbeatable price. However, it is also true that each of Zoeller’s products is unique in its own way, and a mere glance through the specifications does not fully bring out the specialties. Therefore, it will be necessary to study the unique features of this product with the help of a detailed review.
- Product Dimensions: 10.3 x 8 x 10.3 inches
- Product Weight: 27.1 pounds
- Type: Submersible Sump
- Pump Discharge: 1 ½ inches
- NPT Motor: 0.3 HP, 115 volts
- Power: 2580 GPH at 5′, 2040 GPH at 10′, 1140 GPH at 15′ head
- Maximum Speed: 3450 RPM
- Warranty: 1 year
The Zoeller 57-0001 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump comes with a 1-year warranty on parts and labor which requires the user to take the product (or ship it via courier) to the nearest service center for removal of defects.
- Almost entire pump made of high quality cast iron, no sheet iron used
- Epoxy coating ensures excellent product resistance against corrosion
- Perfectly sized discharge capable of passing small spherical solids
- Long power cord usable in dry and wet conditions
- Powerful 1/3HP motor with good pumping capacity
- Thermal switch protects pump against overheating
- Neoprene square ring for hermetical sealing of motor
- Efficient two poles float-operated switch.
- Switch guard could have been made of cast iron
- Average maximum head
Get more information about the Zoeller 57-0001 M57 Sump Pump here
Design and Build Quality:-
Like the Zoeller Mighty Mate M53 Submersible, this product belongs to the highly popular Mighty Mate Series 50, and hence, is made of high quality cast iron that is both corrosion resistant as well as capable of resisting high pressures. In case you are wondering whether “cast iron construction” refers merely to the external housing, let us add that Zoeller has made virtually all the parts (with some minor exceptions, as we shall see below) with the same cast iron that the housing boasts of.
This imparts greater cohesion to the body of the sump pump, and in the process, ensures that there is never any chance of water seeping inside through linkages between parts made of different materials. It also ensures that sheet iron, which is notorious for being leaky and prone to corrosion, is virtually absent from this high-quality machine. Complementing the quality construction materials is the great design.
Zoeller has stuck to the somewhat unattractive but highly efficient submersible sump pump structure with the cylindrical motor assembly, the float and switch assembly, the impeller and the discharge being the most distinctive features.
Those parts (notably the motor housing and the discharge) which are exposed to the water for the greater part of their lifetime, have been provided with an epoxy coating, which buttresses the cast iron’s natural corrosion resistance to a point where the product does not rust even when it remains under water for months on end.
Major External Parts (Handle, Power Cord, and Discharge):-
We noted that there are a few minor exceptions to the complete cast iron construction of the sump pump. One of the exceptions is the handle, which is made of stainless steel which has not been coated with epoxy paint. While this does make the handle more vulnerable to rust, we may surmise that Zoeller chose steel because of its comparatively light weight, since a heavy cast iron handle would be bulky and difficult to lift.
Furthermore, being made of high-quality stainless steel, the handle is never at risk of being broken or dislocated during the installation of the sump pump. The discharge is the standard 1-1/2” NPT unit found in the best of Zoeller’s offerings. Being in constant contact with water, the discharge is well insulated from the internal components of the sump pump. Furthermore, it is capable of passing spherical or near-spherical solids of ½” diameter or less, which may be present in the sump water.
This impressive capability ensures that the sump is never choked with small pebbles and other dirt particles, but neither are the discharge pipes of the Zoeller M57 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump blocked and pierced by large and irregularly shaped solid bodies. Finally, the different discharge size ensures that there is never any need for the use of screens, which are utilized in some sump pumps to block out unwanted particles, but which tend to get clogged easily, thereby retarding the functioning of the pump.
Finally, the power cord is of sufficient length and can operate under dry and wet conditions alike, thus ensuring that the sump pump never demands costly electrical rewiring of the basement.
Motor and Sealing:-
Zoeller has given the Zoeller 57-0001 M57 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump a 1/3HP motor, which is quite standard for this price range. What is exceptional, however, is this motor’s capability to pump water at a rate of 2850 gallons per hour at 5’ head. Coupled with its ability to pump a good 1140 gallons per hour at a maximum 15’ head, this makes the product one of the best sump pumps as far as the sheer pumping power is concerned.
Some users complained that the maximum head of 15’ was a bit on the lower side, but they added that what matters is the gallons pumped at the maximum head rather than the maximum head itself since most basements do not require a pump with more than 15’ head. Finally, the motor can function efficiently at temperatures 130 degrees F (or 54 degrees C), which is again one of the highest in the industry.
This powerful motor is hermetically sealed using a neoprene square ring, thereby ensuring that the oil from the motor does not spill out into the housing, nor does the water from the exterior find its way into the motor.
See more product description of Zoeller 57-0001 M57 Sump Pump Here
Impeller, Switch Assembly, and Switch Protection:-
The Zoeller M57 comes with a specially engineered cast iron impeller that can work efficiently even under high water pressure. Being of cast iron, the impeller is not liable to suffer damage from large pieces of rubble that may come in with the sump water. Indeed, this feature sets it apart from some cheaper products that use vulnerable plastic impellers.
The switch assembly consists of a two pole automatic switch, triggered by a shaft that connects the high-quality polypropylene float to the body of the sump pump. When the level of water rises, the float rises and triggers the switch, thereby starting the pumping procedure. This assembly is defended by a switch guard, which ensures that boulders and other floating effluents do not damage the precision switch. Interestingly, Zoeller has used AISI 1215 cold roll stainless steel for the switch shaft and guard.
While this steel is one of the best variants available in the market today and the necessity of making the shaft light enough to move accurately would justify the use of steel, the guard could have been made of cast iron. That said, though, none of the customers who bought the Zoeller M57 Sump Pump complained about the quality of the switch guard.
Users of Zoeller 57-0001 M57 Basement High Capacity Sump Pump noted the solid build quality of the product, which gave it the ability to survive years of heavy usage. The switch assembly was praised for being highly sensitive, while the motor was commended of handling massive storm flooding without problems. However, a minority of users believed that the motor could have had a better maximum head, while a still lesser number complained about the switch guard being made of steel.
The Zoeller 57-0001 Sump Pump is similar to other Zoeller products in some areas (epoxy coating for instance), but it has some unique points as well, including the almost total use of cast iron, the square neoprene sealing of the motor and the well-designed cast iron impeller.
Having been developed by Zoeller’s experienced engineers, these features coordinate well to pump water out with an efficiency we’ve come to expect of Zoeller. Considering all these points, it would not be wrong to say that this product is one of the best sump pumps for any house or commercial establishment that has a moderate to high flooding threat and does not want to burn a hole in the pocket purchasing a very expensive commercial pump.
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Basement Watchdog BW4000 Sump Pump Reviews
Combinations of primary and backup sump pumps are not new per se, given that reputed manufacturers like Wayne have come up with units like Wayne 1/2 HP Battery Backup Sump Pump System. However, Basement Watchdog is a comparatively new name, and one can have legitimate fears that in trying to create not only a rare pump design but also one with novel features such as backup pump diagnostics, the company has overlooked certain vital pump specifications.
To lay such fears to rest, we need to undertake a detailed analysis of the Basement Watchdog BW4000 to understand its utility better.
- Product Dimensions: 8.8 x 11 x 18 inches.
- Product Weight: 26 pounds
- Type: Combination Primary and Back-Up Pump
- Discharge: 1-1/4.”
- NPT Motor: 1/3HP for primary sump pump
- Power: 3200GPH at 10’ head for primary, 1730GPH at 10’ head for backup
- Warranty: 2 years warranty
The Basement Watchdog BW4000 comes with a two-year warranty on all parts and labor.
- Dual pumps with polycarbonate design for durability and efficient functioning.
- Standard discharge system to tackle heavy workloads.
- Excellent pumping capacity of both primary and secondary pumps.
- Automatic diagnostics forewarns against possible risks.
- Reed switches ensure sensitivity, small footprint.
- Sturdy impeller allows for maintenance of excellent water output.
- No battery included with the product.
- The product is somewhat heavy and is difficult to move in the absence of a handle.
Find out more Features and Specifications here:-
Build Quality and Design:-
Unlike the Wayne unit referred above, the Basement Watchdog BW4000 takes a radically new approach to product design. The backup sump pump has been placed midway along the housing of the primary pump, and the peripherals have also been placed on the same level. The discharges of the two units, on the other hand, have been merged and placed at the top of the housing of the primary pump. Together, these produce a somewhat novel but interesting design that does not create a huge sump footprint and can work efficiently by allowing the backup to complement the primary in case of heavy water load, etc.
The build quality, on the other hand, is conservative. Tough polycarbonate and polypropylene have been used to make the product’s exteriors and individual functional parts. These make the use of powder coating redundant and also provide a decent amount of protection against debris flux in the sump. Further, some sturdy steel holders have been placed at various critical points to ensure that there is never any issue with looseness.
Major External Parts (Discharge, Power Cord, External Battery):-
The Basement Watchdog BW4000 has a common discharge for both the backup and primary sump pumps, and this is connected to a PVC pipe using the metal brackets provided with the unit. Like all good units, this product’s discharge also offers the standard 1-1/4” NPT diameter, thus making it compatible with standard plumbing. One of the critical steps in installing a sump pump is to find a power source that is somewhat close to the location of the sump. The alternative to this is to find a long power cord, and Basement Watchdog takes no chances, providing users with a large power cord with water repellent properties.
More interestingly, the product uses a battery-backup sump pump system, and for this, any major sump pump battery can be employed. Batteries and battery fuel, however, are not included as part of the package. On the plus side, one does get a battery case that can accommodate a broad range of batteries easily.
Motor and Sealing:-
As one would expect, there are two sets of motors with the primary one being rated at 1/3HP. This translates to a healthy 3200GPH at 10’ head for the main pump. The secondary pump, in comparison, manages 1730GPH at the same head. While this may look weak compared to the primary pump, one has to remember that the function of this unit is to work only when there is an outage or when the level of water is so high that the primary pump cannot handle it on its own. The latter feature works automatically, thus ensuring that the sump pump never gets overwhelmed.
Another exciting innovation concerns the automatic diagnostic system of the unit, which allows users to know through a system of beeps and flashing lights when something is wrong with their unit.
While the manufacturer does not reveal the exact procedure through which such diagnostics take place, users have commented that this unique feature often warned them of impending problems in advance by pointing out small problems. Lastly, both the motors come with hermetic sealing that allows the unit to survive the harsh flux of the sump without any damage occurring to the motors.
Check out Performance and Power of BW4000 pump:-
Switch and Impeller
The benefits of using a sump pump are directly proportional to the sensitivity of the switch. The Basement Watchdog BW4000 achieves this by providing a pair of highly sensitive reed switches that can detect minute changes in the water level without any difficulty. Further, these reed switches take up less space as compared to the float switches, and this translates into a compact unit.
The polycarbonate impeller, on the other hand, is sturdy enough to handle heavy water flux. This is all the more important because the backup and the primary sump pumps have a common impeller, and when both work together, an enormous amount of water is removed, thus putting pressure on the impeller. Thankfully, the excellent design of the base prevents the influx of large debris into the blades of the impeller, thus allowing the impeller to work with water and small debris only.
It takes a lionhearted manufacturer to try out intensive innovations without establishing a firm reputation in the market. With the Basement Watchdog BW4000 though, the company not only helps customers avoid the debate over which type of sump pump to choose, but provides excellent value for money by offering a range of features along with unique ones like diagnostics.
While a separate backup sump pump may, of course, be installed should one feel the need for it (courtesy the small footprint of the unit), this pump can act as a one-stop solution for a majority of home and commercial establishment owners facing medium to high water volumes.
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Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump Reviews
Those familiar with our how to install sump pump guide would know that a substantial part of the procedure involves creating and preparing the sump. Now while many homes come with ready-made sumps, the presence of sump liner, etc. often cannot be taken for granted. Enter the Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump, which comes with an external shell made of foam that makes such liner unnecessary.
At the same time, the unit is capable of providing drainage and durability similar to the who’s who of the sump pump market. However, one may wonder whether the unit is really that durable, or whether the inclusion of an outer shell has led to some corner-cutting. A detailed review will address such concerns.
- Product Dimensions: 13.8 x 13.8 x 12.4 inches
- Product Weight: 18.2 pounds
- Type: Submersible sump pump
- Discharge: 1-1/2.”
- NPT Motor: 1/3HP
- Power: 1620GPH at 10’ head
- Warranty: 1 year
The Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump comes with a 1-year warranty on all parts and labor.
- Sturdy outer shell and excellent thermoplastic design allow for a durable producSupport for multiple PVC pipe diameters, default PVC pipe provided with the package.
- Excellent motor capacity with remarkable shut-off point.
- Double protection for the motor in the form of hermetic sealing and external shell.
- Sturdy impeller and fixed nature of unit contribute to enhanced impeller efficacy.
- Fixed size of the external shell may make the unit difficult to use in tiny sumps.
- Lack of handle makes unit difficult to move.
At its core, the Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump comes with a standard thermoplastic housing and a somewhat elevated base that allows the impeller to avoid scraping against the base of the external shell. A standard plastic float is located to one side of the unit, such that the unit can be activated when 1/4th of the shell has been filled with water.
Coming to the external shell, we find that it has been made of a durable hard foam that keeps the water at bay while ensuring that fungal growth does not take place. The top of the shell can be completely open, or if used in certain other situations, closed and feature two sets of pipes, one bringing in the water to be removed and the other removing it. In either position, though, the core parts are well protected by the shell, while the shell design ensures less accumulation of debris, thus reducing the frequency of sump pump maintenance procedures.
While some people contend that the presence of a large amount of foam and plastic in the unit makes it vulnerable to damage from floating debris, one has to remember that sump linings are made of the same foam as the external shell, and the use of thermoplastic has become increasingly prevalent in the industry. Indeed, the durable thermoplastic allows the unit to withstand water temperatures of up to 130 degrees Fahrenheit.
Major External Parts (Discharge and Power Cord):-
The unit comes with a standard thermoplastic discharge with a width of 1-1/2” NPT, though pipes with a width of 1-1/4” are also acceptable courtesy of a unique design modification. Interestingly, because the base is elevated, the amount of pipe needed to move the water out of the sump is marginally lower than what normally would be necessary. Further, unless one wants to make specific modifications, one can use the pipe provided by the manufacturer, and then connect this pipe to the outer PVC pipes of the basement. Lastly, the excellent design, coupled with these features, allows the unit to remove solid spherical debris with diameters of 1/8th inch or less.
The power cord, on the other hand, is designed to handle constant water flux and is, therefore, durable and water-resistant. However, the fact that it curls around the top of the unit when it comes out of a dedicated opening in the cover of the external shell, (not to be confused with the sump pump cover, which sits at the mouth of the sump) shortens the effective length of the wire. However, since the cover will rarely be used in sump settings, this is not a criticism that extends to its core sump pump functions.
Motor and Sealing:-
The Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump comes with a 1/3HP motor similar to that used in market leaders like the Zoeller M53 Sump Pump. In the case of this offering by Simer, such power translates into an impressive 2880GPH at 0’ head and 1620GPH at 10’ head. With a shut off point of 18’, this unit is capable of draining the vast majority of basements.
Such efficiency, of course, can only be achieved when the motor is housed in a safe environment, and this is obtained by providing a hermetically sealed, oil-filled chamber for the motor to work in. Coupled with the enhanced security offered by the external shell, this allows the motor to stay insulated from even the worst debris flux.
Find out more Powerful Performance of Simer 2925B model here
Switch and Impeller:-
The Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump avoids carrying out any unnecessary innovations when it comes to the switch, offering a traditional float switch with a sturdy switch connector above it. The location of the switch, as mentioned above, allows it to activate the unit when water has filled about 1/4th of the shell, and this allows the motor plenty of time to remove the water.
The impeller has been afforded plenty of space courtesy of the heightened base, and this lets it use its sturdy thermoplastic blades to maximum effect. Further, since the pump is affixed to the base of the shell, there is never any risk of instability, and this helps improve the water removal power of the impeller manifold.
While some bells and whistles are being added to sump pumps by manufacturers, the key features of the best sump pump no doubt include sufficient water removing capacity and a design that allows for large operation and external flux without suffering damage. The Simer 2925B Sump/Laundry Sink Pump excels in these departments, and also, provides a unique external shell design that provides added stability and protection. While this external shell also brings with it a few minor issues, the overall combination of an excellent pump and an equally durable shell make this unit ideal for a broad range of situations.
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